Scientific Research Report on South Africa Maize Processing Current Situation
Maize is one of the three most important grains in the world with first output per area and people make use of maize exceedingly more than rice and wheat. South Africa is the biggest maize consumption country in Africa with yield per year at 6,000,000-13,000,000 tons, ranking first in Africa. In 1998, its planting areas were 3,520,000 hectares and yields were 7,570,000 tons. According to the planting trend in recent years, the maize planted area is increasing and it reached 110,000,000 tons last year. Hence, preliminary, fine and deep maize processing demands have become a new consumption growth in South Africa.
Maize is reputed as soft gold, abundant in VC, VE, protein, carotene, unsaturated fatty acid and crude fiber, which can adjust human body metabolism and strengthen resistance. Coarse cereals like maize can not only provide dietary fiber but sufficient nutrition.
In South Africa, 43% maize is for people use, 54% for animals and 1% for industry. In 1999-2000, it was planted 3,200,000 hectares per year. White maize flour is the staple food for 75% people, which is ground in different ways and usually cooked into a porridge. It can be seen that maize for industry application is very low. Maize is coarse cereal, rich in dietary fiber.
protein content is approximately 7-10%; it contains high in germ.
lacking in lasine and tryptophan, lower utilization of protein than wheat.
Fat content is up to 3%～4%; maize germ is the important source for dietary oil with 85% unsaturated fat and rich VE.
Maize is rich in VB1 and VB2.
high content of Vitamin PP.
Minerals are mainly P, K, Mg, K is higher than rice and wheat .
Every 100g maize contains 100 ug carotene.
Fresh niblet and baby maize with VC and VB can serve as vegetables.
Corn primary processing means corn kernels processing by physical method, such as rubbing, hitting and grinding, which can not cause corn chemical composition or structure change. According to the processed products species, we can divide it into single production, double production and co-production technology. And the co-production technology is the most reasonable method with the best cost performance in the primary processing technology.
Corn primary processing technology:
Cleaning- destoning-measuring- magnetic separation- peeling- degerming- grits making- screening and classifying- purification- milling- screening and classifying- packaging
The project uses new semi dry multi products processing technology, including cleaning, degermination, milling, byproducts treatment and packaging, which orderly connect to guarantee continuous operation of the whole line.
The whole technology is practical, flexible and easily operated, which can be adjusted according to market demands and maize granularity. Reasonable product structure creates value-added Profits. To count according to local market price, the gross profit reaches to 85USD and 2,550,000 USD per year with 100 ton per day yield.
Corn fine processing changes maize molecule through flour mixing, puffing and flaking methods, forming new products with different appearances, textures and tastes. As maize industry develops, maize has been improved to produce various food. By fine processing, maize is added value to become a new product. High gluten maize flour and germ flour: maize contains high fat which will be oxidized to generate odor during storage. The special maize flour contains less than 1% oil. It is suitable to mix with wheat flour. The maize flour is good for children and the aged with more protein and vitamin. Puffed Food：It has been popular since last 70s with features of sponginess, uniformity and softness. Its nutrition and diatery rate are improved as well as the color, smell and taste.
The maize germ oil is extracted from the germ, rich in VE and unsaturated fatty acid. For example, the linoleic acid and oleic acid can protect heart and cerebral vessels. Our processing line design reduces costs at maximum. Reasonable configuration and advanced technology promote diversified digestible products by guaranteeing maize value, which greatly increases economic benefits to 1,500,000USD to 3,000,000USD per year.
Corn deep-processing can improve industrial structure, increase products added value and solve the issues of agriculture. For example, we can produce HFCS, corn germ oil and refine biological ethyl alcohol. This can solve the energy problem by using corn as alcohol. Corn is not only food and feed, but also the important industrial raw material. It can be processed into more than 3000 kinds of industrial products. With global corn processing rapid development, corn consumption is increasing substantially. This will have important influence to the corn supply and demand balance and circulation of South Africa and even the whole world. It has vital meaning to know and research corn deep-processing industry development value and influence, formulate scientific development policy and keep the corn supply and demand in balance. Industrial corn consumption belongs to the rising industry in corn industry. It is the most rapidly developing industry in corn total consumption. Corn processing has lots of usage in food, medicine and chemical engineering. It has good prospect future. With deepening of corn processing industry, the products links are extending continuously, and corn processing industry has large market potential.
Corn deep-processing uses corn as raw material. It adopts physical, chemical and fermentation engineering technology to process corn. At present, the main corn deep-processing products are: starch and starch sugar, alcohol, lysine, glutamic acid and citric acid. Besides, the by-products DDGS, corn oil, protein feed, bran feed and corn dregs are also paid more attention. Corn deep-processing industry gradually develops with corn yield increasing and corn deep-processing products species increasing. Corn alcohol is the most ancient corn deep-processing products; people begun to produce corn starch from 1950s. In 1990s, starch sugar, monosodium glutamate and modified starch became popular. In the 21st century, starch sugar continually develops, and lysine and citric acid is also widely used. Recently, the newly developed corn textiles and corn plastic products realize new features of natural degradation and they have no pollution.
Starch industry is the large industry which consumes lots of corn. Recently, corn starch processing industry develops towards large-scale and high level. Alcohol industry has long production history. At present, the alcohol production capacity reaches more than 10,000,000t.And edible alcohol almost saturated. Citric acid, aginomoto and lysine develops rapidly. The output has leaped to global number one. But we still have large gap in production technology, processing cost, species, quality and package compared with developed countries.
Corn deep-processing enterprises' raw material purchase has relations with geographical distribution:
Outside deep-processing enterprises：large scale purchase and storage in moist grain period for usage in summer dry period. Inside deep-processing enterprises: usage in moist grain period, less storage.